Its object was to blow up the palace at Westminster during the state opening of Parliamentwhile James I and his chief ministers met within, in reprisal for increasing oppression of Roman Catholics in England. Fawkes was a member of a prominent Yorkshire family and a convert to Roman Catholicism. His adventurous spirit, as well as his religious zeal, led him to leave Protestant England and enlist in the Spanish army in the Netherlands. There he won a reputation for great courage and cool determination.
English Catholics struggled in a society dominated by the newly separate and increasingly Protestant Church of England. The penalties for refusal were severe; fines were imposed for recusancyand repeat offenders risked imprisonment and execution. Catholicism became marginalised, but despite the threat of torture or execution, priests continued to practise their faith in secret.
Many Catholics believed that her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotswas the legitimate heir to the English throne, but she was executed for treason in Leading papists, rather than causing trouble as anticipated, reacted to the news by offering their enthusiastic support for the new monarch.
Jesuit priests, whose presence in England was punishable by death, also demonstrated their support for James, who was widely believed to embody "the natural order of things".
His wife, Anne of Denmarkwas the daughter of a king. Their eldest child, the nine-year-old Henrywas considered a handsome and confident boy, and their two younger children, Princess Elizabeth and Prince Charleswere proof that James was able to provide heirs to continue the Protestant monarchy.
He promised that he would not "persecute any that will be quiet and give an outward obedience to the law",  and believed that exile was a better solution than capital punishment: For the Catholic expatriates engaged in that struggle, the restoration by force of a Catholic monarchy was an intriguing possibility, but following the failed Spanish invasion of England in the papacy had taken a longer-term view on the return of a Catholic monarch to the English throne.
In what became known as the Bye Plotthe priests William Watson and William Clark planned to kidnap James and hold him in the Tower of London until he agreed to be more tolerant towards Catholics.
Cecil received news of the plot from several sources, including the Archpriest George Blackwellwho instructed his priests to have no part in any such schemes.
Amongst others, they approached Henry IV of France for funding, but were unsuccessful. All those involved in both plots were arrested in July and tried in autumn ; Sir George Brooke was executed, but James, keen not to have too bloody a start to his reign, reprieved Cobham, Grey, and Markham while they were at the scaffold.
Raleigh, who had watched while his colleagues sweated, and who was due to be executed a few days later, was also pardoned. Arbella Stuart denied any knowledge of the Main Plot. The two priests, condemned by the pope, and "very bloodily handled", were executed. That the Bye Plot had been revealed by Catholics was instrumental in saving them from further persecution, and James was grateful enough to allow pardons for those recusants who sued for them, as well as postponing payment of their fines for a year.
Three days later, he ordered all Jesuits and all other Catholic priests to leave the country, and reimposed the collection of fines for recusancy. Some Members of Parliament made it clear that in their view, the "effluxion of people from the Northern parts" was unwelcome, and compared them to "plants which are transported from barren ground into a more fertile one".
Even more discontent resulted when the King allowed his Scottish nobles to collect the recusancy fines. Those of more moderate means had to pay two-thirds of their annual rental income; middle class recusants were fined one shilling a week, although the collection of all these fines was "haphazard and negligent".
He also spoke of a Christian union and reiterated his desire to avoid religious persecution. To Father John Gerardthese words were almost certainly responsible for the heightened levels of persecution the members of his faith now suffered, and for the priest Oswald Tesimond they were a rebuttal of the early claims that the King had made, upon which the papists had built their hopes.
The senior judges of the English legal system, most of the Protestant aristocracy, and the bishops of the Church of England would all have attended in their capacity as members of the House of Lords, along with the members of the House of Commons. Housed at Coombe Abbey near Coventrythe Princess lived only ten miles north of Warwick—convenient for the plotters, most of whom lived in the Midlands.
Once the King and his Parliament were dead, the plotters intended to install Elizabeth on the English throne as a titular Queen. The fate of Princes Henry and Charles would be improvised; their role in state ceremonies was, as yet, uncertain. He was described by contemporaries as "a good-looking man, about six feet tall, athletic and a good swordsman".
Thomas Wintour — was chosen as the emissary, but the Spanish king, although sympathetic to the plight of Catholics in England, was intent on making peace with James. While there he sought out Guy Fawkes —a committed Catholic who had served as a soldier in the Southern Netherlands under the command of William Stanleyand who in was recommended for a captaincy.All you need to know about the Gunpowder Plot of and why Guy Fawkes and Robert Catesby tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament.
Citation: C N Trueman "The Gunpowder Plot of " The explosive expert, Guy Fawkes, had been left in the cellars to set off the fuse. He was only caught when a group of guards decided to check the cellars at the last moment. Fawkes was arrested and sent to the Tower of London where he was tortured.
Fawkes, Guy (–) English conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot of Roman Catholic traitors enlisted him in a plot against James I and Parliament.
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The Gunpowder Plot, or Powder Treason, of was an attempt by a conspiracy of a dozen Catholic Englishman to commit mass murder and mass destruction by blowing up the House of Lords in London. The primary target of the conspiracy was the Protestant King James I, but most of the king’s immediate.
The history about Guy Fawkes, the Gunpowder Plot, and why British people everywhere gather round bonfires every November 5th to burn effigies of Guy and watch fireworks.