March 04, by Arly Nguyen Recent tragedies have reignited an ongoing dialogue about the influencing factors that lead individuals to commit acts of violence. In particular, video games, which have been an extremely popular source of entertainment for more than 30 years, cause concern as they continue to grow increasingly violent, realistic and interactive. But there is also another side of this conversation that claims violent media is a safe outlet for aggression.
Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking,  drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life.
It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence. Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.
Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.
To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence.
Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person. This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physicalsexualpsychologicalemotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect.
Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce.
Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abuserscaregiver support interventions e.
Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators.
A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used.
The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence:There is broad consensus among medical associations, pediatricians, parents, and researchers that violent video games increase aggressive behavior.
 A study published in Psychology of Popular Media Culture found that 90% of pediatricians and 67% of parents agreed or strongly agreed that violent video games can increase aggressive behavior among children. This module discusses the causes and consequences of human aggression and violence.
Both internal and external causes are considered. Effective and ineffective techniques for reducing aggression are .
The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence ☆.
First, exposure to media violence is a causal risk factor for physical aggression, both immediately after the exposure and months, even years, later. Second, in the absence of other known risk factors for violence, high exposure to media violence will not turn a normal well-adjusted child or adolescent into a .
The study concluded that violent media exposure has a merely correlative relationship with aggression and that there was not sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between violent media and violent behavior.
Television programming as of is all about showing reality without censorship, meaning that child watchers are inundated with shows depicting physical and sexual violence, as well as the use of illegal substances and harsh language. Unfortunately, due to this proliferation of negative media.