In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests although many stadiums do have a small number of chairback seats in addition to the bench seating. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. Only three stadiums owned by U.
You can download a. Morris, All rights reserved. If baseball is America's pastime, then football is its passion. Through widely-watched events such as the Super Bowl—professional football's annual "world championship" game—and college football's various Bowl games on New Year's Day, football provides a stage for Americans to celebrate local, regional, national, ethnic, collegiate, and other identities, as well as a stage for American corporations and universities to promote themselves and their products.
Indeed, no other sport carries as much symbolic baggage as does American football. A violent, rigidly hierarchical, and highly gendered sport—the sporting equivalent of the military—football is often seen by its supporters and detractors alike as the embodiment of everything that is right or wrong about American culture and society.
Origins of American Football As in England, where the sport first developed, early football in the United States was relatively disorganized and often quite violent.
Different towns and schools played by their own sets of rules, but they all involved two sides of a dozen or more men on foot rather than horseback—hence the sport's name—attempting to direct a ball toward goals at opposite ends of the field.
With the rising popularity of interscholastic competition, football gradually became more formalized on both sides of the Atlantic during the second half of the nineteenth century. InEnglish proponents of the relatively non-violent, no-handling version of the game created the Football Association, whose distinctive "soccer" rules have since become the world's most popular football code.
The first-ever intercollegiate match in the United States, between Princeton and Rutgers on 6 Novemberfeatured teams of 25 men each playing rules more akin to soccer than to the modern American game. Rutgers won 6 to 4.
But footballers in the United States, like those at Britain's Rugby school, came to prefer more "manly" versions of the sport, in which the ball could be played and carried with the hands, thus requiring a more violent style of tackling.
For example, the Oneida Club preferred the rugby-like "Boston Game," as did nearby students at Harvard University, whose pair of well-publicized matches in with rugby-playing McGill University of Montreal did much to popularize rugged handling versions of the sport.
It was at Yale University, however, that the distinctive American "gridiron" game would emerge. InRugby alum D. Schaft introduced his schoolboy version of the game to the Yale campus. But Schaft's American classmates, led by Walter Camp—a tireless promoter of both the game and himself and the so-called "Father of American Football"—soon began tinkering with the rugby code, which the Americans found to be excessively ambiguous and overly reliant on interpretations grounded in British sporting tradition.
Eager to develop an unambiguous code of football for intercollegiate play, a rules committee led by Camp gradually developed a more rigid, complicated, and formalized version of football—a game of technical coordination, specialized roles, and scripted plays which resonated with the emerging corporate, industrial society these Ivy League men would soon lead.
The most prominent changes made by Camp's rules committee occurred in andwhen the relatively fluid play and "scrummage" of rugby were replaced by a line of "scrimmage," a formal play-initiating exchange between a designated "center" and "quarterback," and ball possession limited by a fixed number of downs and distance—originally, three plays to gain five yards.
This down-and-distance system necessitated the horizontal marking of the field at five-yard intervals, hence the "gridiron" name by which the American game subsequently has been called.
Early Cultural Significance American football served the multiple roles of holiday spectacle, promotional vehicle, and symbol of American virtue and vice from an early date.
This Thanksgiving matchup in New York became an annual event inand by the end of the decade it had become one of the year's leading social engagements for the Northeast's college-educated elite—"more of a spectacle than an athletic contest" according to Harper's Weekly in December 9.
While the Thanksgiving Day—football tradition remains with us today through the professional ranks, New Year's Day ultimately became the primary holiday for collegiate football championships, beginning inwhen an intersectional game was first made the centerpiece of Pasadena, California's Tournament of Roses.
This "Rose Bowl" football championship became an annual tradition inand it was followed by imitators in Florida, Texas, and Louisiana during the s.
These holiday football games proved to great commercial successes, as well as outstanding vehicles to promote Sunbelt tourist destinations and real-estate opportunities to college-educated populations of the cold Northeast.
The success of one's football team also quickly became a marketing opportunity for the schools themselves. Baseball was the only other sport at the turn of the century that potentially could rival football for capturing alumni attention, but baseball's summer schedule and the competition for players from the professional ranks allowed football to become the primary ceremonial attachment to one's alma mater.
Thus, upon assuming the presidency of the newly endowed University of Chicago, Yale alumnus William Rainey Harper made his first order of business the hiring of Yale legend Amos Alonzo Stagg as the school's football coach.
More than just promoting the schools themselves, successful college football teams became a vehicle for communities only tangentially related to the schools to celebrate their place in American society.The oldest college football stadium in the United States, the Bobby Dodd Stadium, has faithfully served the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets for over a century.
Though the grounds on which the stadium was built had been used for playing football since , it was not until that construction efforts on bleachers for the Georgia Tech students began. In the United States, college athletics is a two-tiered system. The first tier includes the sports that are sanctioned by one of the collegiate sport governing bodies.
The major sanctioning organizations include the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and the National Junior College . ncaa-football April 12, am EDT August 20, pm EDT Entering the season, SN ranks the top 20 college football states.
Every state can make its case, but there has to be a way. One year earlier, Gerritt Smith Miller established the first formal football club in the United States, Boston Common's Oneida Club. The first-ever intercollegiate match in the United States, between Princeton and Rutgers on 6 November , featured teams of 25 men each playing rules more akin to soccer than to the modern American game.
Nov 08, · Beyond Alabama, the South is heavily represented among states with the highest levels of college football fandom; in the top 10 are Alabama, Oklahoma, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, Mississippi and Louisiana. The statistic shows figures on the most viewed college football games in the United States in the / season.
The college football game Alabama vs. Auburn, broadcast on CBS on November